Help us continue to fight human rights abuses. Please give now to support our work. Those who fail to pay are frequently threatened with arrest and physical harm. Far too often these threats are carried out. In the shadows, high-level police officials embezzle staggering sums of public funds meant to cover basic police operations. Those charged with police oversight, discipline, and reform have for years failed to take effective action, thereby reinforcing impunity for police officers of all ranks who regularly perpetrate crimes against the citizens they are mandated to protect. The Nigeria Police Force, established in , has a long history of engaging in unprofessional, corrupt, and criminal conduct. Many Nigerian police officers conduct themselves in an exemplary manner, working in difficult and often dangerous conditions—some policemen and women were shot and killed in the line of duty in —but for many Nigerians the police force has utterly failed to fulfill its mandate of providing public security. Indeed, 80 years after its birth, members of the force are viewed more as predators than protectors, and the Nigeria Police Force has become a symbol in Nigeria of unfettered corruption, mismanagement, and abuse. First, the most direct effect of police corruption on ordinary citizens stems from the myriad human rights abuses committed by police officers in the process of extorting money.
Nigeria is unarguably one of the most influential countries in Africa. British colonialism of Nigeria began apparently in when Lagos ceded to Britain. This occurrence is officially described as the annexation of Lagos.
human development in Nigeria, which suffers a low gross domestic In these ways, historic and modern economic, politi- cal, and social motivations discussed in this monograph and would constitution and again in the 19constitu- tions dating back to the s and giving local officials great power.
Corruption is notoriously persistent in Nigeria notwithstanding the panoply of laws deployed over the years against it. This article argues that the factors constraining the effectiveness of laws in the fight against corruption are to be found not in the laws, but in the larger societal matrix of resilient social norms and institutions, which constitute the environment of corruption in the country.
The environment thus constituted is either conducive to, or largely tolerant of, corruption. The article then suggests that the anti-corruption effort, to be successful, must engage broadly with the environment by instigating social change. This article will examine the role of social norms and the law in the anti-corruption struggle of Nigeria in recent times. Nigerians often conclude that, given their abundance of natural endowments, the massive scale of poverty among the bulk of their population cannot be explained but by the ravages of corruption.
They also accept that combating corruption is bound to be a daunting, perhaps insuperable, challenge given its entrenchment. The following questions are central to this inquiry: what is the environment of corruption in Nigeria? What counts as corruption in the value acceptances of Nigerians? Why is corruption so resilient and persistent in Nigeria? Why have laws been rather ineffective to combat corruption in Nigeria?
The importance of a constitution in any given society cannot be overemphasized. It is the fundamental and organic law of a nation or state that establishes the institutions and apparatus of government, defines the scope of governmental sovereign powers, and guarantees individual civil rights and civil liberties. It is trite that one of the sources of a constitution is other constitutions. This is the major concern of this present work. This will help us to understand better, how previous constitutions have been fashioned for Nigeria and will go a great length in making us understand the source of our present constitution from the looking glass of constitutional history.
After the annexation of Lagos by the British in , a legislative and executive council was constituted for it.
While the Nigerian Constitution requires each house of the National I. Background The history of the Nigerian legislature dates back to the Lagos Legislative continued to evolve and by the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria was the presidential system of government was reinstituted in (when Nigeria.
The racial and ethnic makeup of the American people is in flux. New immigrants from Asia and Latin America have added a large measure of cultural and phenotypic diversity to the American population in recent decades, just as waves of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe did a century ago Bean and Stevens ; Higham ; Lieberson and Waters : Ch. Moreover, the boundaries between racial and ethnic groups are becoming blurred by high rates of intermarriage and the growing number of persons with mixed ancestry Lee and Bean Descriptions and projections of the racial and ethnic composition of the American people appear kaleidoscopic, with varied accounts and interpretations.
This interpretation is consistent with the thesis of the declining significance of race and ethnicity in American society. These conflicting accounts arise, in part, because of differing ideological presuppositions, but also because racial and ethnic identities are not mutually exclusive or immutable Barth ; Alba The US Census Bureau recently released population projections showing that non-Hispanic whites will no longer be the majority of the population in US Census Bureau b ; Roberts Most media accounts of these forecasts neglect to report that whites as opposed to non-Hispanic whites are actually projected to remain the large majority upwards of 70 percent in of the US population for earlier accounts, see Pellegrini ; US Census Bureau
Nigeria in Political Transition
Since it gained independence from Britain in , however, it has been plagued by political instability and economic problems. In , after implementing a wide range of governmental reforms, Obasanjo stepped down from office and restored civilian rule. In doing so, he became the only Nigerian military leader to voluntarily hand power to a democratically-elected government.
The completion of the latter series in saw the commencement of a second by the Constitution is the duty to promote and encourage mutual knowledge and The years and , although highly significant in the history of Europe, volume use various means of dating events and processus discussed in their.
Since its independence in , Nigeria has struggled unsuccessfully to clearly articulate the relationship between religion and the state. Whereas the British colonialists seemingly bequeathed to the new nation-state a secular regime at independence, the internal contradictions, which, paradoxically were propagated by the colonial authority, incubated to pose a challenge to the new state soon thereafter.
This article therefore seeks to situate the legal and constitutional frontiers of state—religion relations in Nigeria. It is intent on delineating the conceptual boundary between religion and politics, while evaluating the impact of the current relationship on national security. The article advocates for a moderate secular regime—by whatever name—that is constitutionally defined and institutionalized.
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Introduction. Transition as Democratic Regression
There are two sections that cover the period of constitutional development in Nigeria by the British imperial administrators and Nigeria was amalgamated in , when South and greater participation by Nigerians in the discussion of their.
On June 8, , General Sani Abacha, the military leader who took power in Nigeria in , died of a reported heart attack and was replaced by General Abdulsalam Abubakar. General Abubakar released political prisoners and initiated political, economic, and social reforms. Relations between the United States and Nigeria improved with the subsequent transfer of power to a civilian government. Nigeria continues to make progress in strengthening its fragile democracy but faces serious economic challenges.
Nigeria remains relatively stable, although ethnic and religious clashes in some parts of the country have led to massive displacement of civilian populations. Topic Areas About Donate. Download PDF. Download EPUB. On July 7, , Moshood Abiola, the believed winner of the presidential election, also died of a heart attack during a meeting with U.
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–. World War I: U.S. enters World War I, declaring war on Germany (April 6, Constitution is ratified, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and transportation of president’s inauguration date from March 4 to Jan. Here’s a timeline of major events in U.S. History from –, including and Civilians in Nigeria.
Nigeria, 99th member of the United Nations, is an internationally recognized sovereign nation made up of 36 states and a Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Nigeria is a creation of the Constitution. Nigeria grew into an internationally recognised independent nation, in , after a period of colonialism under the British government which spanned about a century beginning with the formal annexation of Lagos in While each successive pre-independence constitutional instrument was enacted through an order-in-council of the British monarch, their post-independence counterparts were enacted in two ways: an Act of parliament Constitution and military decree and The emergent entity was administered under the authority of the British monarch through her appointed agent: a Governor-General.
The Constitution created a Legislative Council of the Colony which was however restricted to making laws for the Colony of Lagos alone, whilst the Governor General made laws for the rest of the country. Eight years later, the Constitution was replaced by the Sir Clifford Constitution. Notably, the latter Constitution established a 46 member Legislative Council which was given law making responsibilities for the Colony of Lagos and the southern provinces.
The Council had 27 members including the Governor, the Lieutenant-Governors, other elected and nominated members including three representing Lagos as the administrative and commercial capital and one representing Calabar as a big commercial centre. Notably, the Constitution introduced, for the first time in any British African territory, the elective principle with Lagos and Calabar being granted the franchise to elect their representatives to the Legislative Council.
This constitution came into effect after the Second World War — an event which had a significant effect on constitutional reforms relating to the governance of colonial Nigeria, and indeed Africa as a whole, as returning African heroes of the war who were conscripted to fight on the side of the British returned with a deeper understanding of national freedom and international sovereignty.
In addition, the charter of the United Nations which was adopted after the war made strong reference to the freedom of colonised people under the principle of respect for self-determination. The chain of events culminated in the formation of the National Council for Nigeria and Cameroons, which later became the National council of Nigerian Citizens, N.
History: Evolution of Nigeria constitution 1914 to 1999
With the merger of Exxon and Mobil in , the newly formed Exxon Mobil Corporation brought together a shared history that dates back over years to their origins as part of the Standard Oil family of companies. By , the Trust had amassed companies responsible for all aspects of the petroleum industry — exploration, production, refining, transportation and marketing — creating a vertically integrated organization.
Congress’s passage of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of , however, which aimed to ensure fair competition in interstate commerce and to eliminate monopolies, eventually led to the dissolution of the Trust in Not to be outdone, the company rebounded by forming the Standard Oil Interests, consisting of about 20 holding companies. In , taking advantage of a New Jersey law allowing a single corporation to own stock in other companies, Standard Oil Company of New Jersey became the holding company for the Standard Oil Interests.
Constitution and Its Implications for Environmental Law and allocation while Part 5 is a discussion of Supreme Court of Nigeria landmark In the context of oil and gas, non-ownership theory has been defined as “a Section 6 (1), Mineral Oils Ordinance, Laws of the Federation of Nigeria and.
As Africa’s most populous country, Nigeria, with an estimated population of million and over ethnic groups, deals with a range of migration issues, from massive internal and regional migration to brain drain and a large, well-educated diaspora in the West mainly the United States and the United Kingdom that it sees as key to future development. Thousands of Nigerians seek refuge and asylum each year, and some also migrate illegally, transiting through North Africa and then crossing the Mediterranean to Europe.
Poverty drives much of this movement: more than 70 percent of Nigerians live below the national poverty line. Also, millions have been internally displaced due to religious and ethnic conflicts — particularly in cities across the north — that have persisted despite the establishment of a democratic government in that followed several years of military rule.
At the same time, Nigeria is home to a large number of foreigners, including those attracted by the oil-export boom from the s and displaced by political conflicts and civil wars in West Africa. Nigeria faces a number of complex challenges related to causes of migration. According to a World Bank report, these include translating the benefits of reforms into welfare improvements for its citizens, improving the domestic business environment, extending reform policies to states and local governments, focusing on non-oil growth, increasing and maintaining infrastructure investments, strengthening domestic institutions, tackling unrest in the Niger Delta, and increasing the quality of social-sector spending.
This profile covers Nigeria’s migration history, internal migration and internally displaced people, refugee and asylum flows into and out of the country, movement to Europe, Nigeria’s immigrant population and migration policies, regional migration issues, and trafficking. It also examines the size and characteristics of the Nigerian diaspora, the remittances they send, and the government’s policies toward its citizens abroad. Documented history of migration in the territory that is now Nigeria dates back to four simultaneous slave trades in Africa between and , the largest being the transatlantic in which 12 million slaves were exported from west, west-central, and eastern Africa to the European colonies in the Americas beginning in the 15th century.
The three other slave trades — the trans-Saharan, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean — which began before the transatlantic one, involved another 6 million people. Estimates from Harvard economist Nathan Dunn indicate that Nigeria lost about 2 million people during the year period, out of which about 1. The arrival of the British in the midth century provided a framework for large-scale migration as the British needed a large labor force for mines, plantations, and public administration.
In addition, migrant laborers from different parts of the country, especially from rural areas, moved into Nigeria’s regional headquarters and administrative and market centers in search of trade and gainful employment; destination cities included Lagos, Kano, Zaria, Enugu, Ibadan, Sokoto, and Kaduna, among many others.
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See others. Discover in a free daily email today’s famous history and birthdays Enjoy the Famous Daily. Search the whole site. Historic regions: 5th century BC – 20th century. Nigeria contains more historic cultures and empires than any other other nation in Africa. They date back as far as the 5th century BC, when communities living around the southern slopes of the Jos plateau make wonderfully expressive terracotta figures – in a tradition known now as the Nok culture , from the Nigerian village where these sculptures are first unearthed.
The aim of this work is to trace the history of Nigeria’s constitution from the In , the Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria was merged with could not make laws, they were merely grounds for public discussion. please I need constitutional development in Nigeria since still date.
Alleging violations of both constitutional provisions and those of the African Charter under the fundamental rights enforcement procedure in the Nigerian constitution, the Plaintiffs claimed that sections 33 1 and 34 1 of the constitution, their right to life. Nigeria has a Constitutional Republic and does do some things right. For example, Democratic Development project, which is a project that is managed by United.
The Nigerian Constitution in There appears to be a consensus among the rulers of Nigeria that the country’s Constitution needs review. The review is, in fact, going on and there is not much I can do about that. They created a momentum that brought the issue of development back on the international agenda, overcame aid fatigue and galvanized the public. This paper seeks to contribute to this process by highlighting the main strengths and weaknesses of the MDGs in Nigeria and.
The other one states that corruption enhances economic and political development, and according to the other, corruption is a significant constraint to development and modernization. But rather than utilizing its resources for maximum development, the country is unfortunately bedevilled with how to efficiently and effectively distribute oil revenues in an equitable manner.
The revenue allocation phenomenon in Nigeria is basically the issue of distribution of national resources revenue, mobilized by. Throughout the last 10 years, Nigeria and Kenya have been partly free.